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Auteur A. Beetz
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Ein modulares Simulationskonzept zur Evaluierung von Positionssensoren sowie Filter- und Regelalgorithmen am Beispiel des automatisierten Strassenbaus / A. Beetz (2012)
Titre : Ein modulares Simulationskonzept zur Evaluierung von Positionssensoren sowie Filter- und Regelalgorithmen am Beispiel des automatisierten Strassenbaus Titre original : [Une méthode de simulation modulaire pour l'évaluation de détecteurs de position ainsi que d'algorithmes de filtre et de règle avec l'exemple de la construction automatisée de routes] Type de document : Thèse/HDR Auteurs : A. Beetz, Auteur Editeur : Munich : Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften Année de publication : 2012 Collection : DGK - C Sous-collection : Dissertationen num. 688 Importance : 175 p. Format : 21 x 30 cm ISBN/ISSN/EAN : 978-3-7696-5100-3 Note générale : Bibliographie Langues : Allemand (ger) Descripteur : [Vedettes matières IGN] Navigation et positionnement
[Termes descripteurs IGN] détecteur
[Termes descripteurs IGN] engin de travaux publics
[Termes descripteurs IGN] filtre
[Termes descripteurs IGN] guidage de véhicules
[Termes descripteurs IGN] positionnement cinématique
[Termes descripteurs IGN] test de performance
Résumé : (Auteur) In recent years, great progress has been made in the field of automated road construction, so that automated construction machines are already widely used on large highway construction sites. In these machines automated height control of the tools is mainly used. A completely automated control of the position and height of the vehicle and the tool is only realized for slow-moving construction machines such as asphalt pavers and slip form pavers. The design of such systems is usually carried out individually for each machine, for which the combination of sensors, filters and control algorithms is of prime importance. Usually, the design must be effected again for each type of construction machine. Previous simulations for the implementation of the software on the machine computer are usually realized on software side. An intermediate step is missing in which sensor components or filter algorithms can be tested individually in the laboratory without being affected by outside influences such as of the ground or other environmental influences. The development of a three-step approach in this thesis closes this gap by developing an additional hardware-in-the-loop simulator. For the hardware-in-the-loop simulator remote-controlled vehicles in a scale of 1:14 are used which are able to reflect a realistic kinematic behavior. Simulations can be performed due to the interconnection of different sensors, software, and the remote-controlled models. Thereby new sensors and algorithms can be optimized in laboratory with respect to their implementation.
For the realization of the simulator, a geometric description of widely spread kinematic vehicle models is set up. Furthermore, an exemplary geometric description is shown for three characteristic tools of construction machines. These tools are the plate of a bulldozer, the plate of a motor grader and the screed of an asphalt paver. A local sensitivity analysis is carried out on the basis of two of these geometrical tool models, which determines the influence of various sensors on the achievable position accuracy of the tools.
For a better understanding of the terms of systems theory and control engineering, a brief introduction is given to these topics. In this introduction, the focus is laid on controllers used for lateral control of the vehicle models on a predetermined trajectory in the simulator. The controllers used consist of various combinations of the PID controller and are thus based on a non-model based approach. The root mean square (RMS = Root Mean Square) is adopted for the description of the control quality. The RMS is calculated with lateral deviations of the vehicle to a desired trajectory during the lateral control. It will be applied to evaluate the used sensors, the controllers and filter algorithms in the control loop. Before using the controllers in the simulator system, they will be evaluated by means of software simulations.
Three robotic total stations are used for the positioning of the controlled vehicles in the simulator. They will be analyzed as to their achievable accuracy in order to determinate the control quality. In this case also a laser tracker is used as a position reference, so that it is possible to make a separation of the control quality from the accuracy of the measurement.
The vehicles implemented in the simulator are a caterpillar and a truck model. With these remote-controlled models it is possible to investigate a large range of vehicle models found on construction sites. In order to determine the steering parameters for a computer-aided control system, an automated calibration method is presented for these models. The simulator is used for testing the implemented vehicle models and also to compare two variants of Kalman filters with respect to improving the control quality. Within the test series, a control quality of 2-4 mm at a speed range of 10 - 30 cm/s could be achieved.
Numéro de notice : 14624 Thématique : POSITIONNEMENT Nature : Thèse étrangère Permalink :
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