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Auteur Fabian Neyer
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Monitoring rock glaciers by combining photogrammetric and GNSS-based methods / Fabian Neyer (2017)
Titre : Monitoring rock glaciers by combining photogrammetric and GNSS-based methods Type de document : Thèse/HDR Auteurs : Fabian Neyer, Auteur Editeur : Zurich : Schweizerischen Geodatischen Kommission / Commission Géodésique Suisse Année de publication : 2017 Autre Editeur : Zurich : Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule ETH - Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Zurich EPFZ Collection : Geodätisch-Geophysikalische Arbeiten in der Schweiz, ISSN 0257-1722 num. 99 Importance : 174 p. Format : 21 x 30 cm ISBN/ISSN/EAN : 978-3-908440-45-1 Note générale : bibliographie
thesis submitted to attain the degree of doctor of sciences of ETH Zurich
Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteur : [Vedettes matières IGN] Applications photogrammétriques
[Termes descripteurs IGN] Alpes centrales
[Termes descripteurs IGN] champ de vitesse
[Termes descripteurs IGN] collocation par moindres carrés
[Termes descripteurs IGN] déformation de la croute terrestre
[Termes descripteurs IGN] données localisées 3D
[Termes descripteurs IGN] glacier
[Termes descripteurs IGN] image terrestre
[Termes descripteurs IGN] matrice de covariance
[Termes descripteurs IGN] pergélisol
[Termes descripteurs IGN] reconstruction 3D
[Termes descripteurs IGN] rocher
[Termes descripteurs IGN] série temporelle
[Termes descripteurs IGN] Suisse
Index. décimale : 33.60 Applications photogrammétriques - usage combiné de la photogrammétrie et de la lasergrammétrie Résumé : (auteur) Rock glaciers are creeping landforms of perennially frozen ground and belong to the permafrost creeping phenomena. They are mainly composed of rock debris that accumulate in areas of high natural erosion. Ice particles between the rocks cause the moving accumulation in steep terrain to dynamically flow downslope. In the Alpine region, these morphological landforms mainly occur at north-facing mountain slopes in high altitudes above the forest boundary and are known for their sensitivity to climate change.
For several decades, rock glaciers have been monitored for scientific aims, while advances in surveying technologies increased the interest in such studies since the 1990s. Modern technologies in remote sensing (e.g., airborne imagery or satellite-based measurement techniques) are often combined with measurements from field campaigns, i.e., measurements taken directly on a rock glacier (e.g., GNSS, laser-scanning, ground temperature measurements, etc). The high-level goal is to enhance the process understanding, especially with respect to the changing climate: various studies indicate an extended risk of slope failures in steep frozen bedrock due to the global temperature increase. Early recognition of increased activities help to inform local authorities in the endangered areas about the potential hazard before such an event.
The present work is part of the X-Sense project (Nano-Tera.ch), with an interdisciplinary team of scientists that build and operate new low-cost devices for data acquisition, develop new data processing pipelines and algorithms for evaluation, and also gain new insight of natural processes in these regions. Autonomous measurement systems, developed within other work packages in the X-Sense project, observe different permafrost creep areas with high resolution in space and time. Combined with multi-year observations, the derived surface motions are used to obtain an improved process understanding.
This work focuses on the photogrammetric image processing in order to retrieve precise surface displacement estimates. More precisely, image sequences, acquired with two permanently installed commercial digital single-reflex cameras, are used to measure topographic changes in the observed permafrost area. By the combination with high resolution GNSS positioning results, the goal is to obtain precise time series of moving rock boulders at different positions within the field of view. Challenges arising from the combination of different data sets, the development of an automatic processing pipeline, and an improvement of the processing strategy in general, are the main tasks of this thesis.
The study site is the bordering area above the Grabengufer rock glacier (Mattervalley VS, Switzerland), known as the Grabengufer rock slide. Local topographic conditions allowed only a partially good installation geometry for the photogrammetric reconstruction. With respect to a 3D reconstruction without the use of GNSS coordinates, an accuracy increase of about one order of magnitude could be achieved in case these high-precision solutions were integrated. More specifically, respective standard deviations for the East, North, and Height components of 6, 5, and 2 cm were achieved. The stated accuracy, maintained throughout the measurement period of nearly four years (summer months), was obtained in an area of approximately 80m×80 m, with a mean distance of 80 m from the two cameras.
Position time series of moving rock boulders were filtered using the principles of collocation. Analyzing the correlation characteristics of the stochastic signal, an optimal correlation length was computed and used to extract relevant signals from the noise contaminated time series. Velocity was directly estimated as a derived quantity in the collocation process. Furthermore, the techniques of the adaptive collocation approach is presented. This iterative method uses the principles of a dynamically adjusting anisotropic covariance metric. In an example of 2-dimensional velocity fields it is shown that regional compression and extension areas can be extracted.
Results indicate that the observed permafrost area has experienced a mean annual acceleration of about 0.1m/Year between the years 2013 and 2015. During the late summer months of 2015, a prominent temporal acceleration was observed. The mean displacement rate was found to be 0.67m/year, whereas the 3-dimensional displacement is dominated by a translation following the gliding surface. An area in the front of the observed field of view was found to have higher displacement rates, especially during the late summer months, thus it detaches from the otherwise relatively homogeneous flow field.
The methods and principles presented in this work show the potential of monitoring permafrost surface displacements using permanently installed optical cameras in combination with positioning results from permanently mounted GNSS stations. These principles can easily be transfered to other monitoring applications and thus contribute to a better understanding of such processes.
Note de contenu : 1 Introduction
2 Study Site
3 Image-Based Displacement Estimation
4 Object Point Reconstruction
5 Collocation for Time Series Analysis
Numéro de notice : 17458 Thématique : IMAGERIE Nature : Thèse étrangère Note de thèse : thèse : Sciences : ETHZ : 2016 DOI : 10.3929/ethz-a-010865360 En ligne : https://www.sgc.ethz.ch/sgc-volumes/sgk-99.pdf Format de la ressource électronique : URL Permalink :
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Code-barres Cote Support Localisation Section Disponibilité 17458-01 33.60 Livre Centre de documentation Photogrammétrie - Lasergrammétrie Disponible