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Very large trees in a lowland old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest : Density, size, growth and spatial patterns in comparison to reference sites in Europe / Kris Vandekerkhove in Forest ecology and management, vol 417 (15 May 2018)
Titre : Very large trees in a lowland old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest : Density, size, growth and spatial patterns in comparison to reference sites in Europe Type de document : Article/Communication Auteurs : Kris Vandekerkhove, Auteur ; Margot Vanhellemont, Auteur ; Tomas Vrska, Auteur ; Peter Meyer, Auteur ; et al., Auteur Année de publication : 2018 Article en page(s) : pp 1 - 17 Note générale : Bibliographie Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteur : [Vedettes matières IGN] Végétation
[Termes descripteurs IGN] distribution spatiale
[Termes descripteurs IGN] données dendrométriques
[Termes descripteurs IGN] Europe du nord
[Termes descripteurs IGN] Fagus sylvatica
[Termes descripteurs IGN] forêt ancienne
[Termes descripteurs IGN] forêt secondaire
Résumé : (Auteur) The frequent occurrence of very large trees (diameter at breast height DBH ≥ 80 cm) is a typical element of both primary and secondary old-growth forests. We analyzed the characteristics of very large trees in one of the few stands of lowland old-growth beech forest in Northwestern Europe, regenerated around 1775 and left unmanaged since 1986. We examined their density, diameter range, increment, mortality rate and spatial distribution, based on repeated full dendrometric surveys. In order to evaluate the results, we compared them to original datasets from primary and secondary old-growth beech forests in Europe, and an extensive reference table, compiled from inventories and literature.
In our study site, the density of very large trees increased from 31.5 to 34.3 trees ha−1 over the last 25 years, reaching a median DBH of 97 cm (mean 98.9), with the largest tree attaining a DBH of 159 cm. Although the trees were over 240 years old, they still showed an average DBH increment of 4.75 mm year−1 and a low mortality rate (0.89% year−1), indicating that they were still vital. These figures are remarkably high compared to other old-growth beech forest reference sites, where the density of very large trees generally varies between 5 and 20 trees ha−1 (median value 13.1), with a median diameter of 85–90 cm and maximum DBH for beech trees rarely exceeding 100–130 cm.
The regular spatial distribution pattern of the very large trees in the studied stand clearly differed from a typical old-growth stand, in which very large trees are randomly distributed. Over the last 25 years though, because of random mortality and ingrowth, the spatial distribution gradually became more random.
The extraordinary densities and sizes of the very large trees in our study site can be explained by the favorable climate and site conditions that promote high increments, in combination with the former management interventions of tending and thinning that resulted in continuous non-suppressed growth. Although derived from a very specific case with particular conditions, our observations may be relevant to other beech forests, as they tend to reset certain baseline assumptions for tree size and longevity potential of beech in Northwestern Europe.
Numéro de notice : A2018-468 Thématique : FORET Nature : Article nature-HAL : ArtAvecCL-RevueIntern DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.02.033 date de publication en ligne : 02/03/2018 En ligne : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.02.033 Format de la ressource électronique : URL article Permalink :
in Forest ecology and management > vol 417 (15 May 2018) . - pp 1 - 17[article]A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics / Rebecca Spake in Conservation biology, vol 29 n° 6 (December 2015)
Titre : A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics Type de document : Article/Communication Auteurs : Rebecca Spake, Auteur ; Thomas H.G. Ezard, Auteur ; Philip A. Martin, Auteur ; Adrian C. Newton, Auteur ; C. Patrick Doncaster, Auteur Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : pp 1695 - 1703 Note générale : bibliographie Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteur : [Termes descripteurs IGN] biodiversité
[Termes descripteurs IGN] ectomycorhize
[Termes descripteurs IGN] forêt boréale
[Termes descripteurs IGN] forêt méditerranéenne
[Termes descripteurs IGN] forêt secondaire
[Termes descripteurs IGN] forêt tempérée
[Termes descripteurs IGN] indicateur biologique
[Termes descripteurs IGN] restauration écologique
[Vedettes matières IGN] Ecologie forestière
Résumé : (auteur) Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old-growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group–specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. Numéro de notice : A2015--027 Thématique : BIODIVERSITE/FORET Nature : Article En ligne : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12548 Format de la ressource électronique : URL article Permalink :
in Conservation biology > vol 29 n° 6 (December 2015) . - pp 1695 - 1703[article]