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Spatial Linked Data in Europe: Report from Spatial Linked Data Session at Knowledge Graph in Action, October 6th, 2020, on-line conference / Bénédicte Bucher (February 2021)
Titre : Spatial Linked Data in Europe: Report from Spatial Linked Data Session at Knowledge Graph in Action, October 6th, 2020, on-line conference Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : Bénédicte Bucher , Auteur ; Erwin Folmer, Auteur ; Rob Brennan, Auteur ; Wouter Beek, Auteur ; Elio Hbeich, Auteur ; Falk Würriehausen, Auteur ; Lexi Rowland, Auteur ; Ricardo Alonso Maturana, Auteur ; Elena Alvarado, Auteur ; Raf Buyle, Auteur ; Pasquale Di Donato, Auteur Editeur : Dublin : European Spatial Data Research EuroSDR Année de publication : February 2021 Collection : EuroSDR official publication, ISSN 0257-0505 num. 73 Projets : 1-Pas de projet / Conférence : KiA 2020, Knowledge Graph in Action: DBpedia, Linked Geodata and Geo-information Integration 06/10/2020 06/10/2020 en ligne Note générale : bibliographie Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteur : [Vedettes matières IGN] Géomatique web
[Termes IGN] données localisées
[Termes IGN] réseau sémantique
[Termes IGN] SPARQL
[Termes IGN] web des données
Résumé : (éditeur) In 2020, the Knowledge Graph in Action (KGiA) online conference was organized as a joint event gathering three annual events with a common interest on producing, consolidating data, and supporting their joint reuse and different specific focuses within this common interest: the DBpedia day which more specifically focuses on advancing DBpedia, the EuroSDR Spatial Linked Data day which more specifically focuses on spatial linked data, and the EuroSDR VGI event which more specifically focuses on volunteered geographic information.
The event was organized around distinct parallel sessions dedicated to each event and joint plenary sessions. During plenary sessions, keynotes related to the modelling and the usage of spatial knowledge, in particular in the form of knowledge graphs, at the junction of these communities. Carsten Hoyer Click from the German Aerospace Center presented the design of a development of a distributed data infrastructure for energy systems analysis. Semantic Web techniques are used to interconnect data from different sources and prepare the integrated data layers needed for energy models. Peter Mooney from Maynooth University presented opportunities for more collaboration and geo-information integration between volunteered geographical information, the governmental agencies and the geospatial research communities. He insists on the complexity of data integration, which is always present even when flowcharts hide this complexity and on the semantics aspect being the more difficult to solve. Here the exploration of machine learning and artificial intelligence are the dominant trend. Marinos Kavouras from the National Technical University of Athens extended upon the need for our society to develop competences to interpret all the data available, in big quantities, to make sense of complex phenomena. He argues that space has been one of the strongest pivotal notions in semantically linking all kinds of data. Developing geospatial literacy skills is needed to empower people with a modern cartographic language, an indispensable communication and cognitive tool. Krzystof Janowicz from the University of California presented the application of knowledge graphs to address challenges at the interface between humans and their environment like for example crisis management. The information currently provided to end users is based on the integration of highly heterogeneous data from different fields of expertise and can lead to misinterpretation. Knowledge graphs and their technologies offer perspectives and lots of challenges still ahead to make data AIready at the level of individual statements instead of merely offering access to datasets, to provide additional contextual background information.
The rest of this report concerns presentations and exchanges that took place during the EuroSDR Spatial Linked Data sessions. EuroSDR is a not for profit association established since 1953 for the purpose of applied research and innovation in spatial data provision, distribution and usage in Europe. It gathers national mapping agencies, research institutes, universities and industries. Its activity on Linked data has two main objectives : 1) assessing the value of this technology in addressing current challenges in spatial data provision, distribution and exploitation, 2) identifying new needs for spatial data provision and distribution that have emerged with this technology. This activity started in 2015 and is grounded on big events -like the KGiA conference-, smaller working sessions, and since 2019 a technical group. EuroSDR LD group gathers participants with an interest in Spatial Linked Data (SLD). SLD can be characterized as a domain of applied research and innovation at the overlap between Linked Data and spatial data. Its finality is data production, sharing and reuse on the Web to support decisions with a geographical characteristic. Space is an important dimension to interconnect different information and achieve the Linked Data vision, for example to valorise linked data of different domains if any spatial footprints can be added to associate them with a geographical context or to detect possible connections between different data not connected otherwise. Vice versa, graph based models are promising approaches to address some unsolved issues in spatial data infrastructures.
The section “National presentations” reports on updates presented by different agencies or partners on latest developments, focusing on a given territory. These developments are either in a prototype stage or were presented as fully operational applications.
The remaining sections report on more technology oriented presentations.
The section entitled “Interfacing more users with data and related technologies” present results and approaches oriented on the appropriation of data by potential users, despite possible silos created by the complexity of data technologies, including linked data, was addressed in several presentations. The self-service GIS vision presented by the Kadaster is to support the querying and exploitation of complex data by more users beyond the limited Geomatics Community. The tools developed by Triply, in particular a wizard, focus on giving access to the potential of Linked data to users who are no LD specialists thanks to user oriented interfaces. Besides, a well known usage of Knowledge Graphs is to improve user access to resources -as on Amazon, AirBnB, Google and other platforms, based on the modelling in a knowledge graph of important knowledge related to the resources and also related to the usage. This can be applied in particular to specific resources: the data themselves. The discovery of “fitted for use” datasets, especially spatial datasets is a pending issue given the wide range of users on the one hand, and the difficulty to broker and compare datasets potentially relevant on the other hand. A new EuroSDR initiative targeting the design of an open European Knowledge Graph of geographical digital assets was presented. It consists of the collaborative creation of an open Knowledge Graph about digital assets in Europe, based on the EuroSDR LD Group sandbox and EuroSDR community as a whole.
The last section reported on GeoSPARQL focused presentations. A key technology associated with Linked Data and the Knowledge Graph is GeoSPARQL. One presentation focused on requirements from the domain of buildings and on the type of spatial queries that should be addressed to 3D linked data. Another presentation concerned the GeoSPARQL benchmark on the EuroSDR sandbox.
Note de contenu : 1- Introduction
2- National presentations on spatial linked data activities
3- Interfacing more users with data and related technologies
4- GeoSPARQL focused presentations
5- Discussion and perspectives
Numéro de notice : 17014 Affiliation des auteurs : UGE-LASTIG+Ext (2020- ) Thématique : GEOMATIQUE Nature : Rapport nature-HAL : DirectOuvrColl/Actes DOI : sans En ligne : http://www.eurosdr.net/sites/default/files/uploaded_files/eurosdr_publication_nd [...] Format de la ressource électronique : URL Permalink : Preserving the Geographical Production Process [workshops reports] / Rink W. Kruk (2018)
Titre : Preserving the Geographical Production Process [workshops reports] Type de document : Actes de congrès Auteurs : Rink W. Kruk, Auteur ; Philippe Demaeyer, Auteur ; Karin Decoene, Auteur Editeur : Dublin : European Spatial Data Research EuroSDR Année de publication : 2018 Collection : EuroSDR official publication, ISSN 0257-0505 num. 69 Importance : 23 p. Format : 21 x 30 cm Langues : Français (fre) Descripteur : [Vedettes matières IGN] Information géographique
[Termes IGN] archivage
[Termes IGN] archives
[Termes IGN] données localisées
[Termes IGN] Europe (géographie politique)
[Termes IGN] organisme cartographique national
[Termes IGN] traitement de données localisées
Résumé : (auteur) This report Is the final report of the EuroSDR-project “Preserving the Geographical Production Process”. In two one day workshops (spread over two days) and one postconference workshop at the first annual conference of the International Council on Archives (ICA, since 1948) we have investigated the problem of the fading away of knowledge on the geographical production process, identified initiatives in Europe that preserve crucial parts of the geographical production process and the need for further awareness raising and a European forum for further cooperation, as:
* we share a common history of the geographical production process (although not always happening at the same speed),
* different parts of that history are preserved throughout Europe,
* the awareness of the need to preserve the geographical production process – in order to understand our geographical products today and in the future – is not sufficient by many of the producers and could be improved by a forum,
* local preservation initiatives lack a European, collaborative, cross-domain (NMCAs, libraries, archives and museums) approach that could avoid multiplication of the same efforts (such as the design of a database) on institutional and country level, which is in many cases hampering the preservation process. This report describes the project, presents the conclusions and contains the main deliverables of the project, which are:
* Two workshop reports
* Raised awareness amongst others at the relevant umbrella organisations:
EuroGeographics, International Council on Archives (ICA) and the International Cartographic Association (ICA)
* International Council on Archives first Annual Conference post-conference workshop to grow awareness in the global, archival community of geographical information (the data itself, the preservation of its production process, and as instrument to open-up archival information)
* An overview of the scattered preservation initiatives related to National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) throughout Europe
* Books (“Cartography. Vision on the map” (2016) for Dutch speaking archivists, and a chapter on “Evolution in Knowledge and Technology” in a book about Historical Cartography (in prep.))
* Inherent to the project, new initiatives on the preservation of the geographical production process, including
- a cooperation between the University of Gent and the National Mapping Agency of Belgium that digitized and inventoried documentation and objects, and documented working processes by replaying and recording old working processes
- ongoing work on a standard to describe witnesses (items, objects, …) of the geographical production process by the Royal Military Academy of Belgium, UGent, and the NGI-Belgium with the aim to develop a standard that could suit international cooperation
- the inheritance by the UGent from Alan Wright of his extensive collection of survey instruments. This collection not only outlines the important innovations in the geodetic instruments after WWII, but is also a reflection of a remarkable life in service of science
- an exhibition (2017) titled “Pushing the Boundaries” on the Wright-Draper collection of geodetic instruments in the Science Museum of Gent University
- an overview of institutions, societies, people, and their ‘local’ initiatives, as a starting point for collaboration
- a refined and reworked standard from the Royal Military Academy for the description of objects and documentation that could be potentially used as starting point for a European, collaborative database.
We are grateful to all participants of the workshops. The exchange of knowledge and
experiences has been a very valuable result to all of us, and could only be realized by the
dear support of EuroSDR. We would like to thank EuroSDR for the support. We are also
grateful for the support of EuroGeographics, the International Council on Archives and the
International Cartographic Association.
Note de contenu : Introduction
1- First workshop
2- Preservation initiatives
4- Post conference workshop International Council on Archives
6- Second workshop
8- Ongoing work
Numéro de notice : 25112 Affiliation des auteurs : non IGN Thématique : GEOMATIQUE Nature : Actes nature-HAL : RappRech DOI : sans En ligne : http://www.eurosdr.net/publications/official-publication-no-69-2018 Format de la ressource électronique : URL Permalink : Assessing the economic value of 3D geo-information / Andrew Coote (01/11/2017)
Titre : Assessing the economic value of 3D geo-information Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : Andrew Coote, Auteur ; Phil Knight, Auteur ; Tina Svan Colding, Auteur ; et al., Auteur ; Frédéric Cantat , Auteur Editeur : Dublin : European Spatial Data Research EuroSDR Année de publication : 01/11/2017 Collection : EuroSDR official publication, ISSN 0257-0505 num. 68 Importance : 127 p. Format : 21 x 30 cm Note générale : bibliographie Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteur : [Vedettes matières IGN] Information géographique
[Termes IGN] analyse coût-avantage
[Termes IGN] données localisées 3D
[Termes IGN] valeur économique
Index. décimale : 37.00 Géomatique - information géographique - infrastructure de données Résumé : (auteur) The use of 3D geo-information has rapidly developed in recent years. Technological advances have driven this evolution and reduced the costs involved in the procurement and processing of 3D geo - information. Consequently, National Mapping Agencies (NMA’s) are actively seeking to transform their data operations and processes to produce such enhanced products. However, budgetary constraints in the public sector necessitate a rigorous assessment of costs and benefits before opportunities can be developed. This report is the culmination of a EuroSDR project that undertook a business case analysis over 12 months in collaboration with 11 European national and regional mapping agencies.
The analysis undertaken was structured around use cases (in order to examine the value derived within specific business contexts) and employed two methodologies: (i) value chain analysis and (ii) cost - benefit analysis to identify the quantification of value add identified by value chain analysis and the assessment of costs.
Value chain analysis identifies the connections between the supply and demand sides of a product or service and qualitatively identifies the value that is added throughout the chain of processes from source to end-user. Cost - benefit analysis facilitates an estimation of Return on Investment (RoI) by quantifying the costs and quantifiable benefits that arise from an investment over a defined period of time.
The project’s stakeholders initially selected six use cases for study: forestry management, flood management, 3D cadastre and valuation, resilience (civil contingency), asset management and urban planning. Over the course of six different workshops value chain analysis was applied to each of these use cases. Out of this process, two use cases were then selected for quantification using cost-benefit analysis: flood management due to the ubiquity of the challenge and its high political profile, and urban planning as 3D geo - information has a significant potential to contribute to the problems of managing urban growth. The process ended with the findings and outcomes being shared and consolidated at a workshop attended by delegates from each stakeholder.
Urban planning cost-benefit analysis - the costs are based on real - world cost estimates from Denmark, scaled up for the Republic of Ireland using the comparative land areas. The benefits are based on the following examples of financial impacts (for urban areas only):
• Local Area Plan (LAP) revision and the impact on the planning authority • Visual impact assessment and the reduced costs for developers
• Reduced time for citizens to make LAP submissions and major scheme objections
• General improvements to public sector efficiency.
Based on a 10 year project life cycle and discount rate of 4%, the results indicate a benefit to cost ratio of 2.1:1 and Net Present Value of € 22 million.
Flood management cost-benefit analysis - the same financial model as was applied to the urban planning case was also used for flood management. However, three approaches were taken to “triangulate” the assessment and to illustrate the use of different methodologies:
Cost Avoidance (Option 1) - this estimates the damages and losses that could have been avoided had 3D geo - information been used rather than the information used currently. The avoided damages are then interpreted as the benefits of using 3D geo - information. It has the advantage of requiring only limited inputs and is based on data available from Switzerland: (i) historical information on the loss and damage from previous events and (ii) interviews 8 with experts to indicate the positive effects of a high accuracy DTM. This resulted in a benefit to cost ratio of 3.3:1 and Net Present Value (after 10 years) of € 8.9 million.
Case Study (Option 2) - this uses case study evidence from the Netherlands on public sector benefits from data sharing and the reduced costs of: (i) land survey work, (ii) failures resulting from earlier detection of design errors and (iii) environmental impact assessment s. This assessment gives a benefit to cost ratio of 3.2:1 and Net Present Value (after 10 years) of € 8.6 million.
Benefits Transfer (Option 3) - this uses information from a comparable study undertaken for USGS study entitled, ‘National Enhanced Elevation Assessment’ [Dewberry 2012]. Belgium has been used to illustrate this approach, although results for other countries involved in the study can also be automatically calculated within the financial model. This assessment method gives a benefit to cost ratio of 5.3:1 and Net Present Value (after 10 years) of € 27 million. The higher return calculated by this approach can be explained as Belgium would be unlikely to achieve the economies of scale of data capture costs in the US. A benefit to cost ratio “write down” of 50% would bring it into line with the returns predicted by the other two approaches.
The cost-benefit analysis demonstrated in both of the selected use cases that benefits outstrip costs by a multiple of between two and three times even when considering each use cases in isolation. As further applications of 3D geo–information are added, additional costs should rise more slowly, whilst benefits should accrue at a similar rate, thereby enhancing the overall rate of return. Investment proposals with the type of return profile found in this study would be expected to be positively received, provided the funds were available from public sources.
Further work using this methodology could usefully be considered in relation to the following use cases:
3D Cadastre and Valuation – in the consultant’s view this represents the best opportunity to complete cost - benefit analysis for one of the remaining use cases for which value chain mapping was undertaken. The timing of ground - breaking work in Denmark may mean that access to their internal economic assessment might now be publicly released making this a relatively quick and easy extension of the study into a potentially very financially attractive application.
Asset management – this should be approached by the creation of value chains for significant subsets of this large and complex use case, particularly transport asset management and streetworks. The recent study in Queensland may provide an opportunity for a cost - effective benefits transfer process to be applied.
Note de contenu : 1 INTRODUCTION
2 ECONOMIC CONCEPTS
2.1 The Value of Information
2.2 Methodologies used to assess the value of 3D geo-information in this project
3.2 Peer Review
3.3 Skill Transfers
4 VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS RESULTS
4.1 Forest Management
4.2 Flood Management
4.3 3D Cadastre and Valuation
4.4 Resilience (civil contingency)
4.5 Asset Management
4.6 Urban Planning
5 COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS RESULTS
5.1 Selected Use Cases for Cost-Benefit Analysis
5.2 Urban Planning
5.3 Flood Management
Numéro de notice : 17508 Affiliation des auteurs : IGN+Ext (2012-2019) Thématique : GEOMATIQUE Nature : Rapport nature-HAL : RappRech DOI : sans En ligne : http://www.eurosdr.net/sites/default/files/uploaded_files/pub68_economicvalue-3d [...] Format de la ressource électronique : URL Permalink :
Assessing the economic value ... - pdf éditeurAdobe Acrobat PDF
Adapting national mapping & cadastral agencies business models to open data supply: the survey results / F.M. Welle Donker (01/10/2017)
Titre : Adapting national mapping & cadastral agencies business models to open data supply: the survey results Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : F.M. Welle Donker, Auteur ; Joep Crompvoets, Auteur ; Bastiaan Van Loenen, Auteur Editeur : Dublin : European Spatial Data Research EuroSDR Année de publication : 01/10/2017 Collection : EuroSDR official publication, ISSN 0257-0505 num. 67 Importance : 35 p. Format : 21 x 30 cm Note générale : bibliographie Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteur : [Vedettes matières IGN] Information géographique
[Termes IGN] données ouvertes
[Termes IGN] économie européenne
[Termes IGN] licence
[Termes IGN] organisme cartographique national
[Termes IGN] partage de données localisées
Résumé : (auteur) Since 2009, Open Government Data initiatives have been launched worldwide and the concept of open data is gaining momentum. Open data are often associated with realizing ambitions, such as a more transparent and efficient government, solving societal problems and increased economic value. There has been ample literature describing the (potential) benefits of open data. However, to switch to an open data policy may pose a challenge to the business model of National Mapping & Cadastral Agencies (NMCAs), especially if they are required to generate sufficient revenue to cover a substantial part of their operating costs. This research aims to assess the effects of open data policies on the business models of NMCAs and which adaptations have been made to cope with revenue losses due to open data supply. In March and April 2017, we surveyed European NMCAs to find out which strategies NMCAs employ to be able to (re)finance operational costs and to ensure long - term sustainability of (open) data. This report provides the initial outcomes of the survey and will provide an input for a workshop on Sustainable Open Data Business Models for NMCAs, to be held 18 - 19 September 2017 in Delft, The Netherlands. This workshop will bring together the NMCAs to present and share their experiences of open data and discuss the rese arch results with representatives of academia. Note de contenu : 1 Introduction
1.1 The legal framework for open data
1.1.1 Re-use of public sector information
1.1.2 Sharing of geographical information
1.1.3 Open government data initiatives
1.2 This research
2 Questionnaire of April 2017 set-up and responses
2.1 Questionnaire set-up
2.2 Questionnaire target group
2.3 Questionnaire response
3 Survey analysis
3.1 Inclusion criteria
3.2 Results of the survey: effects of open data on the organisation
3.2.1 Year in which open data supply was implemented
3.2.2 Funding before and after implementation of open data
3.2.3 Most popular open datasets
3.2.4 Funding of open data activities
3.2.5 Formal embedding of open data policies and licences
3.2.6 Measures taken to ensure sustainable open data
3.2.7 Motivations for implementing open data within the organisation
3.2.8 Open data maturity within the organisation
3.2.9 Effects of open data for the organisation
3.2.10 Future vision for open data
22.214.171.124 Vision on the future of open data within the organisation
126.96.36.199 Vision on the future of open data with the country
3.2.11 Success factors that will contribute to sustainable open data
4 Preliminary conclusions and further steps
Numéro de notice : 17507 Affiliation des auteurs : non IGN Thématique : GEOMATIQUE/SOCIETE NUMERIQUE Nature : Rapport d'étude technique En ligne : http://www.eurosdr.net/publications/official-publication-no-67 Format de la ressource électronique : URL Permalink :
Adapting national mapping ... - pdf éditeurAdobe Acrobat PDF
EuroSDR contributions to ISPRS Congress XXIII, 12 - 19 July 2016, Special Session 12 – EuroSDR Prague, Czech Republic / European Spatial Data Research EuroSDR (02/2017)
Titre : EuroSDR contributions to ISPRS Congress XXIII, 12 - 19 July 2016, Special Session 12 – EuroSDR Prague, Czech Republic Type de document : Actes de congrès Auteurs : European Spatial Data Research EuroSDR, Auteur Congrès : ISPRS 2016, 23th international congress (12 - 19 juillet 2016; Prague, République tchèque), Commanditaire Editeur : Dublin : European Spatial Data Research EuroSDR Année de publication : 02/2017 Collection : EuroSDR official publication, ISSN 0257-0505 num. 66 Importance : 130 p. Format : 21 x 30 cm Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteur : [Vedettes matières IGN] Photogrammétrie
[Termes IGN] base de données localisées
[Termes IGN] état de l'art
[Termes IGN] généralisation automatique de données
[Termes IGN] image aérienne oblique
[Termes IGN] organisme cartographique national
[Termes IGN] orthoimage
Note de contenu : - Truedop – a new quality step for official orthophotos / Sven Baltrusch
- High density aerial image matching: state-of-the-art and future prospects / Norbert Haala, Stefan Cavegn
- Changing the production pipeline – use of oblique aerial cameras for mapping purposes / K. Moe, I. Toschi, D. Poli, F. Lago, C. Schreiner, K. Legat, F. Remondino
- Oblique aerial imagery for NMA – some best practices / F. Remondino, I. Toschi, M. Gerke, F. Nex, D. Holland, A. McGill, J. Talaya Lopez, A. Magarinos
- Automated generalisation within NMAS in 2016 / Jantien Stoter, Vincent van Altena, Marc Post, Dirk Burghardt, Cecile Duchêne
- State-of-the-art of 3D national mapping in 2016 / Jantien Stoter, Bruno Vallet, Thomas Lithen, Maria Pla, Piotr Wozniak, Tobias Kellenberger, Andre Streilein, Risto Ilves, Hugo Ledoux
- EuroSDR – the pan-European network for mapping agencies and academia / A. Streilein, F. Remondino, N. Pfeifer, J.A. Trollvik, J. Stoter, J. Crompvoets, M. Potůčková
Numéro de notice : 17374 Affiliation des auteurs : non IGN Thématique : GEOMATIQUE/IMAGERIE Nature : Actes En ligne : http://www.eurosdr.net/sites/default/files/uploaded_files/pub66_eurosdr-isprs-xx [...] Format de la ressource électronique : URL Permalink : How should NMCAs adapt to alternative sources for NMCA data? / Joep Crompvoets (2016)PermalinkChange detection in high-resolution land use/land cover geodatabases (at object level) / Emilio Domenech (01/04/2014)PermalinkChange detection in high-resolution land use/land cover geodatabase (at object level) / European Spatial Data Research EuroSDR (2014)PermalinkEuroSDR-Project, Commission 1 and Commission 2 / Eija Honkavaara (March 2013)PermalinkAssessment of the quality of digital terrain models / Joachim Höhle (December 2011)PermalinkRegistration quality - towards integration of laser scanning and photogrammetry / Petri Rönnholm (2011)PermalinkCommission 1: Performance of medium format digital airborne cameras / Görres Grenzdorffer (2010)PermalinkCrowd sourcing for updating national databases and International Calibration and Orientation Workshop EuroCOW 2010, 10 - 12 February 2010, Castelldefels, Spain [final reports] / European Spatial Data Research EuroSDR (2010)PermalinkEuroSDR-Project / Jantien E. Stoter (2010)PermalinkState-of-the-art of automated generalisation in commercial software / Jantien E. Stoter (2010)Permalink